Importance of Gender and Sex Considerations in AI

By Sumona Bose

December 15, 2023


The rapid advancement of artificial intelligence (AI) in healthcare has the potential to significantly inform medical practices and improve patient outcomes. However, the current state of algorithmic-based systems often overlooks important aspects, leading to potential misdiagnosis and discrimination, particularly affecting marginalized communities. A recent research paper highlights the consequences of neglecting gender and sex differences in medical algorithms and emphasizes the need for inclusive AI in healthcare. Therefore, there is an importance of gender and sex considerations in AI.

Understanding the Risks of Algorithmic Bias

The paper combines perspectives from computer science, queer media studies, and legal insights to shed light on the risks of algorithmic bias in healthcare. It emphasizes the inadvertent discriminatory outcomes, safety issues, and privacy concerns that can arise from the hurried deployment of AI technologies without accounting for diversity. The consequences of overlooking gender and sex in decision-making algorithms, particularly in medicine, are under-recognized and often underestimated.

Impacts on Marginalized Communities

The use of AI in healthcare can lead to safety compromises and misdiagnoses, ironically undermining the problems AI aims to solve. Technical studies often focus on how algorithms identify gender based on user traits, without deeply considering societal impacts. This approach conflicts with the understanding that gender is subjective and internal, leading to misgendering and adversely affecting transgender, intersex, and non-binary individuals.

The Importance of Inclusive AI in Medicine

Precision medicine, which emphasizes understanding individual differences in health, increasingly relies on AI technologies. However, most AI technologies in medicine currently do not adequately consider sex and gender differences, leading to inadequate care for minority groups. This neglect exacerbates existing healthcare inequities and biases. For example, AI in dermatology often fails to include diverse skin colors in melanoma diagnosis, and genomic data frequently underrepresents minorities. More so, sex-based differences in disease prevalence and symptoms are often overlooked in AI applications, affecting diagnosis time and treatment outcomes.

Promoting Responsible Research and Innovation

To address these issues, the paper advocates for integrating considerations of privacy, safety, diversity, and inclusion in the development of health-related algorithms. The Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) framework, established by the EU, focuses on proactively addressing the societal impact of innovations and aligning them with societal needs and values. By bringing together researchers, technology developers, organizations, and societal representatives, RRI aims to prevent avoidable harms and create benefits.


To mitigate risks in healthcare, developing gender-sensitive AI is crucial. This approach must recognize sex and gender differences to avoid sub-optimal, biased outcomes, especially for transgender and intersex communities. Failure to do so risks patient harm, reinforces gender stereotypes, and undermines patient autonomy, demanding urgent attention to diversity and inclusion in AI.

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